Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. Its capital is Ottawa, and its largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada’s long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a developed country and has the tenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world; the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.
Canada’s culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a “just society” are constitutionally protected. Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada’s significant accomplishments, and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity.